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Marijuana as Medicine:
A Recent History

People Are Suffering


Political Actions
Federal Legislation
Opinion Samplings
Polls & Surveys 
Public Elections 
A Remarkable Consensus 

Current Federal Policy
Demands for Change
Medical Prohibition Under Pressure
The Collapse of Compassion
Bush Blunders

Let'em Eat THC
Marinol Isn't Marijuana
The Great White Drug
Let The Market Decide 

Presidents Come & Go
On The Other Hand
Beyond Cultural Warfare


VI.  Citations

1.) "Marijuana, in its natural form, is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man. By any measure of rational analysis marijuana can be safely used within a supervised routine of medical care." Ruling of Drug Enforcement Administration Administrative Law Judge Francis L. Young, "In the Matter of Marijuana Rescheduling," See Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Volume II, R.C. Randall, ed., (Galen Press: Washington, D.C.), 1989, p. 440. 

2.) Robert S. Hepler, M.D. and Ira Frank, "Marijuana Smoking and Intraocular Pressure," JAMA. 217 (September 6, 1971) p. 1392. 

3.) "Fact Sheet: Marijuana & Glaucoma," Statement from the National Eye Institute, August 16, 1978. 

4.) Malin Dollinger, M.D., Ernest H. Rosenbaum, M.D., and Greg Cable. Everyone's Guide to Cancer Therapy, (Andrews and McMeel: New York), 1991, pp. 119-121. 

5.) Decision of Judge Francis L. Young, See Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Vol. II, pp. 413-421. 

6.) Decision of Judge Francis L. Young, See Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Vol. II, p. 416 at 21. 

7.) Center for Disease Control, AIDS Quarterly Surveillance Report, December 31, 1992. 

8.) Decision of Judge Francis L. Young, See Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Vol. II, p. 437 at 44. 

9.) "Out of Joint: The Case for Medicinal Marijuana," by Brian Hecht, The New Republic (July 15 & 22, 1991), pp 8-9. "Voices from Across the USA, Question: Should The Use of Marijuana For Medical Purposes Be Permitted?," USA Today, (March 12, 1992). 

10.) H.B. 329, later renamed The Lynn Pierson Marijuana Treatment & Research Act, was enacted by a vote of 53-9 in the New Mexico House and 33-1 in the Senate. The bill was signed by Governor Jerry Apodaca in February 1978. 

11.) See "Legislative Tallies for State Statutes Recognizing Marijuana's Medical Value." 

12.) [W]e encountered severe difficulties with FDA, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). To say that these federal agencies were uncooperative would be an understatement." Direct Testimony of George Goldstein, Ph.D., former Secretary of Health for the State of New Mexico. See Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Volume I, R.C. Randall, ed., (Galen Press: Washington, D.C.) 1989, p. 118, at 28. 

13.) Ibid., p. 120 at 42. 

14.) New Mexico, New York, Michigan, Georgia, Tennessee, and California established programs of medical access in the 1980s. Only one state, New York, formally published the results of their study. See "Inhalation Marijuana as an Antiemetic of Cancer Chemotherapy," New York State Journal of Medicine, Vincent Vinciguerra, M.D., (October 1988), pp. 525-527. Data from the other state studies was routinely submitted to FDA and various state agencies. This data is summarized in the ACT Brief in Support of Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law, See Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Vol. II, pp. 33-63. 

15.) Senate Concurrent Resolution 473, Michigan legislature, 1983. 

16.) Under intense pressure from War on Drugs hard-liners in the Reagan Administration, Gingrich withdrew his sponsorship in late 1982. Other conservatives, however, did not follow Gingrich's example. 

17.) "Poll: Unapproved Drugs Should Be Available," by David E. Anderson, UPI Newswire, September 24, 1991. 

18.) Survey conducted by the National Center for Telephone Research, Princeton, NJ, December 1978. 

19.) Survey conducted by Joe B. Williams, Research Consultant, Elmwood, Nebraska, April 1979. 

20.) Ibid

21.) Washington State Medical Association, February 28, 1979. 

22.) "Marijuana as Antiemetic Medicine:A Survey of Oncologists Experiences and Attitudes," by Richard E. Doblin and Mark A.R. Kleiman, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 9, No. 7 (July 1991) , p. 1316. 

23.) Charlene Cochran, program host WFIR, January 4, 1993. 

24.) "The America People Talk About Drugs: A Nationwide Survey," conducted by Targeting Systems, Arlington, Virginia. April 1990. Distributed by the Drug Policy Foundation, Washington, D.C. 

25.) DEA Judge Francis L. Young ridiculed FDA's definition of marijuana as a New Drug. "The marijuana plant is anything but a new drug. Uncontroverted evidence in this record indicates that marijuana was being therapeutically used by mankind 2000 years before the Birth of Christ." Decision of Judge Francis L. Young. See Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Vol. II, p. 426. 

26.) U.S. v Randall, D.C. Superior Court, D.C. Crim. No. 65923-75, "Criminal Law & Procedure: Medical Necessity," The Daily Washington Law Reporter, Vol. 104, No. 250, (December 28, 1976), p. 2253. See "Significant Legal Cases" . 

27.) Randall v. U.S., 1978. See "Significant Legal Cases." 

28.) Decision of Judge Francis L. Young, See Marijuana, Medicine & the Law, Vol II, p. 445. 

29.) "Couple Urges Medicinal Use of Marijuana," Chicago Sun-Times, March 1, 1991. "Marijuana Helps Soothe MS Victims," Cape Cod Times, March 19, 1991. "Paraplegic Lauds Marijuana's Benefits," The Tampa Tribune, April 20, 1991. 

30.) ACT v DEA, U.S. Court of Appeals (DC Circuit). April 26, 1991, No. 90-1019. See also "DEA Told to Reevaluate Marijuana's Medical Value," The Washington Post, April 27, 1991. 

31.) "HHS to Phase Out Marijuana Program," by Michael Isikoff, The Washington Post, June 22, 1991. 

32.) "Medical Quandry Pushing Husband On Illegal Path", by Cory Farley, Reno Gazette-Journal, (Reno, Nevada), June 18, 1991; "Feds Withhold AIDS Couple's Marijuana," by Phil Davis, News Herald (Panama City, Florida), June 21, 1991; "US Curbs Marijuana Distribution for Ill," Chicago Tribune, June 23, 1991; "Pot Better For Chemotherapy," Tampa Tribune, June 27, 1991; "Patients Blast Decision To Ax Marijuana Medicine Program," Sioux City Journal (Sioux City, Iowa), June 28, 1991; "Woman Pleads For Marijuana To Ease Glaucoma," Fremont Tribune (Fremont, Nebraska), June 29, 1991; "Stoned Cold Justice," Boston Globe, July 7, 1991; "Medical Marijuana," Orange County Register, September 11, 1991; "Paralyzed Push For Right To Medical Marijuana," St. Petersburg Times, October 2, 1991; "Forbidden Relief," Dallas Morning News, November 10, 1991. 

33.) State of Florida v. Kenneth & Barbra Jenks See "Significant Legal Cases." 

34.) "Medical Marijuana Chief Should Resign, Patients Say," Saint Paul Pioneer Press (St. Paul, Minnesota), February, 5, 1992. "Official Accused of Medical Terrorism," Orlando Sentinel (Orlando, Florida), February 5, 1992. 

35.) "Delay in Lifting Ban on Pot for Ill Is Assailed," by Ronald J. Ostrow, Los Angeles Times, January 31, 1992; "Drug Office Blasts Delay on Medical Use of Pot," San Francisco Chronicle, January 31, 1992. 

36.) "The Last Smoke," The Economist, March 28, 1992. "Marijuana Still A Drug, Not a Medicine," by Katherine Bishop, The New York Times, March 22, 1992. 

37.) See "What the Press Says." 

38.) "Government Limits Marijuana Medical Use," Houston Chronicle, March 11, 1992, p. 6A. 

39.) Ibid. 

40.) "The Sick Who Need Pot Say Anti-Drug Era Hurts," by Cory Jo Lancaster, Orlando Sentinel, March 4, 1992. 

41.) "Pot as Medicine: Unfair Decision," The Ann Arbor News, as reprinted in The Bay City Times, March 23, 1992. "Medicinal Use of Marijuana Inconsistent," by Ken Fuson, Des Moines Sunday Register, March 22, 1992. "Marijuana Ban Sparks Outrage," by Alfredo Azula, The Phoenix Gazette, March 16, 1992. 

42.) "The Drug War Claims More Innocent Victims," by Stephen Chapman, Chicago Tribune, March 12, 1992, p.29. "War on Drugs Heaps Suffering on Sufferers," The News Herald (Panama City, Florida), March 13, 1992. "Medical Use of Marijuana: Let Doctors Decide," The Star Tribune (Minneapolis), March 23, 1992. 

43.) "One alternative is the use of the oral dosage form of the major active ingredient in marijuana, delta-9 THC.... Its trade name is Marinol.... Marinol may be as effective and even less likely to cause adverse effects than smoking marijuana cigarettes in controlling your patient's symptoms." Information for the Physician on the Use of Marijuana Cigarettes Provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Fact Sheet prepared by NIDA, August 1991. 

44.) "They Smoke Pot, But Not to Get High," by Sylvia Rubin, San Francisco Chronicle, March 13, 1992. 

45.) "Theoretically, smoking might be the preferable route since it results in less variability of absorption through the gastro-intestinal route. Moreover, smoking provides greater opportunity for individual patient control by permitting the patient to regulate and maintain the `high'." S. Sallan, M.D., N. Zinberg, M.D., & E.I. Frei III, M.D. "Antiemetic Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Patients Receiving Cancer Chemotherapy," New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 293, No. 16, (October 15, 1975), pp. 795-797. 

46.) Direct Testimony of Norman Zinberg, M.D., Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Vol. I, p. 416. 

47.) National Cancer Institute, internal memo dated May 15, 1978. Minutes of a May 9, 1978 meeting, pages 1 & 4. 

48.) "Marijuana cigarettes in many cases are superior to synthetic THC capsules in reducing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Marijuana has an important, clear advantage over synthetic THC capsules in that natural marijuana is inhaled and generally takes effect more quickly than the synthetic capsule which is ingested and must be processed through the digestive system before it takes effect." Decision of Judge Francis L. Young, Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Vol. II, p. 413 at 3. 

49.) Robert Gorter, M.D. "Management of Anorexia-Cachexia in Advanced HIV Disease," PAACNOTES, Vol. 3, No. 5, 1992. 

50.) "Marijuana cigarettes have been used to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and research has shown that the active ingredient THC is more readily and quickly absorbed from marijuana smoke than from an oral preparation of the substance." From Marijuana For Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting, Fact Sheet Prepared by the National Cancer Institute, February 12, 1992. 

51.) According to a Harvard University survey of oncologists, 44% of cancer specialists believe marijuana is more effective than Marinol and 47% stated Marinol caused negative side effects. "Marijuana as Antiemetic Medicine: A Survey of Oncologists Experiences and Attitudes," Journal of Clinical Oncology, (July 1991), p. 1316. 

52.) "Many of the therapeutic properties of cannabis have been verified with pure natural or synthetic cannabinoids. In several fields, however, no modern work exists. The most blatant examples are the anthelmintic, antimigraine, and oxytocic effects. Are we missing something?" Raphael Mechoulam, Ph.D., Cannabinoids as Therapeutic Agents, (Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, Inc.) 1986, p.16. 

53.) Marijuana Therapeutic Research Project: Trial A 1980-1981," Department of Social Oncology - Evaluations Unit, Michigan Cancer Society, March 18, 1992, Table 9 at pg 10. See Marijuana, Medicine & the Law, Vol. II, p. 45. 

54.) Ibid. See Chang/NCI & New Mexico studies, Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Vol. II, pp. 34-38. 

55.) Mae Nutt testified that when her son Keith, a cancer patient, had access to marijuana, "He would join the family for dinner, where he would eat more than his share. He became outgoing and talkative. Keith became part of our family again because [of] marijuana...." Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Vol. I, p. 91 at 42. 

56.) Press Conference to announce creation of the MARS Project, February 28, 1991, Chicago, Ill. 

57.) The Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics, joined by the Physicians Association for AIDS Care and The Lymphoma Foundation of America, has appealed DEA's March 1992 rejection of Judge Young's 1988 ruling that marijuana should be rescheduled. ACT v DEA, U.S. Court of Appeals (DC Circuit Case No. 92-1168). 

58.) Federal agencies could sabotaged scheduled shipments of medical marijuana to the ten seriously ill Americans still receiving Compassionate IND care. War on Drugs hardliners in the bureaucracy would exploit such supply disruptions to provoke a confrontation which publicly pits incoming Clinton appointees against these seriously ill Americans. The bureaucracy would, of course, use the resulting confusion to solidify control over future drug policy. 

59.) "Let Doctors Prescribe Pot," Albany Times Union, editorial, January 4, 1993. 

60.) "Marijuana Therapy Should Be Approved," The Oakland Tribune, January 5, 1993. 

61.) PHS Chief Mason's order terminating the Compassionate IND program for medical marijuana, March 4, 1992. From FOIA materials obtained by the Drug Policy Foundation, Washington, D.C. 

62.) "The Administrative law judge recommends the marijuana plant considered as a whole has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, that there is no lack of accepted safety for use of it under medical supervision and that it may lawfully be transferred from Schedule I to Schedule II." Decision of Judge Francis L. Young, See Marijuana, Medicine & the Law, Vol II. pp. 445-446. 

63.) DEA agents have routinely conducted extensive face-to-face interviews with physicians who requested Compassionate IND access to medical marijuana. During such encounters law enforcement officers demand that licensed physicians justify treatment decisions. The intent of these interviews is to harass, coerce, and intimidate the physician.  

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