1.) "Marijuana, in its natural form, is one
of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man. By any measure of rational
analysis marijuana can be safely used within a supervised routine of medical care."
Ruling of Drug Enforcement Administration Administrative Law Judge Francis L. Young,
"In the Matter of Marijuana Rescheduling," See Marijuana, Medicine & The
Law, Volume II, R.C. Randall, ed., (Galen Press: Washington, D.C.), 1989, p.
2.) Robert S. Hepler, M.D. and Ira Frank, "Marijuana Smoking and Intraocular
Pressure," JAMA. 217 (September 6, 1971) p. 1392.
3.) "Fact Sheet: Marijuana & Glaucoma," Statement from the National Eye
Institute, August 16, 1978.
4.) Malin Dollinger, M.D., Ernest H. Rosenbaum, M.D., and Greg Cable. Everyone's Guide
to Cancer Therapy, (Andrews and McMeel: New York), 1991, pp. 119-121.
5.) Decision of Judge Francis L. Young, See Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Vol. II,
6.) Decision of Judge Francis L. Young, See Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Vol. II,
p. 416 at 21.
7.) Center for Disease Control, AIDS Quarterly Surveillance Report, December 31,
8.) Decision of Judge Francis L. Young, See Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Vol. II,
p. 437 at 44.
9.) "Out of Joint: The Case for Medicinal Marijuana," by Brian Hecht, The
New Republic (July 15 & 22, 1991), pp 8-9. "Voices from Across the USA,
Question: Should The Use of Marijuana For Medical Purposes Be Permitted?," USA
Today, (March 12, 1992).
10.) H.B. 329, later renamed The Lynn Pierson Marijuana Treatment & Research Act, was
enacted by a vote of 53-9 in the New Mexico House and 33-1 in the Senate. The bill was
signed by Governor Jerry Apodaca in February 1978.
11.) See "Legislative Tallies
for State Statutes Recognizing Marijuana's Medical Value."
12.) [W]e encountered severe difficulties with FDA, the Drug Enforcement Administration
(DEA), and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). To say that these federal agencies
were uncooperative would be an understatement." Direct Testimony of George Goldstein,
Ph.D., former Secretary of Health for the State of New Mexico. See Marijuana, Medicine
& The Law, Volume I, R.C. Randall, ed., (Galen Press: Washington, D.C.) 1989, p.
118, at 28.
13.) Ibid., p. 120 at 42.
14.) New Mexico, New York, Michigan, Georgia, Tennessee, and California established
programs of medical access in the 1980s. Only one state, New York, formally published the
results of their study. See "Inhalation Marijuana as an Antiemetic of Cancer
Chemotherapy," New York State Journal of Medicine, Vincent Vinciguerra,
M.D., (October 1988), pp. 525-527. Data from the other state studies was routinely
submitted to FDA and various state agencies. This data is summarized in the ACT Brief in
Support of Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law, See Marijuana, Medicine & The
Law, Vol. II, pp. 33-63.
15.) Senate Concurrent Resolution 473, Michigan legislature, 1983.
16.) Under intense pressure from War on Drugs hard-liners in the Reagan
Administration, Gingrich withdrew his sponsorship in late 1982. Other conservatives,
however, did not follow Gingrich's example.
17.) "Poll: Unapproved Drugs Should Be Available," by David
E. Anderson, UPI Newswire, September 24, 1991.
18.) Survey conducted by the National Center for Telephone Research,
Princeton, NJ, December 1978.
19.) Survey conducted by Joe B. Williams, Research Consultant, Elmwood,
Nebraska, April 1979.
21.) Washington State Medical Association, February 28, 1979.
22.) "Marijuana as Antiemetic Medicine:A Survey of Oncologists
Experiences and Attitudes," by Richard E. Doblin and Mark A.R. Kleiman, Journal
of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 9, No. 7 (July 1991) , p. 1316.
23.) Charlene Cochran, program host WFIR, January 4, 1993.
24.) "The America People Talk About Drugs: A Nationwide
Survey," conducted by Targeting Systems, Arlington, Virginia. April 1990. Distributed
by the Drug Policy Foundation, Washington, D.C.
25.) DEA Judge Francis L. Young ridiculed FDA's definition of marijuana
as a New Drug. "The marijuana plant is anything but a new drug. Uncontroverted
evidence in this record indicates that marijuana was being therapeutically used by mankind
2000 years before the Birth of Christ." Decision of Judge Francis L. Young. See Marijuana,
Medicine & The Law, Vol. II, p. 426.
26.) U.S. v Randall, D.C. Superior Court, D.C. Crim. No.
65923-75, "Criminal Law & Procedure: Medical Necessity," The Daily
Washington Law Reporter, Vol. 104, No. 250, (December 28, 1976), p. 2253. See "Significant Legal Cases" .
27.) Randall v. U.S., 1978. See "Significant Legal Cases."
28.) Decision of Judge Francis L. Young, See Marijuana, Medicine
& the Law, Vol II, p. 445.
29.) "Couple Urges Medicinal Use of Marijuana," Chicago
Sun-Times, March 1, 1991. "Marijuana Helps Soothe MS Victims," Cape Cod
Times, March 19, 1991. "Paraplegic Lauds Marijuana's Benefits," The
Tampa Tribune, April 20, 1991.
30.) ACT v DEA, U.S. Court of Appeals (DC Circuit). April 26,
1991, No. 90-1019. See also "DEA Told to Reevaluate Marijuana's Medical Value," The
Washington Post, April 27, 1991.
31.) "HHS to Phase Out Marijuana Program," by Michael
Isikoff, The Washington Post, June 22, 1991.
32.) "Medical Quandry Pushing Husband On Illegal Path", by Cory Farley, Reno
Gazette-Journal, (Reno, Nevada), June 18, 1991; "Feds Withhold AIDS Couple's
Marijuana," by Phil Davis, News Herald (Panama City, Florida), June 21,
1991; "US Curbs Marijuana Distribution for Ill," Chicago Tribune, June
23, 1991; "Pot Better For Chemotherapy," Tampa Tribune, June 27, 1991;
"Patients Blast Decision To Ax Marijuana Medicine Program," Sioux City
Journal (Sioux City, Iowa), June 28, 1991; "Woman Pleads For Marijuana To Ease
Glaucoma," Fremont Tribune (Fremont, Nebraska), June 29, 1991; "Stoned
Cold Justice," Boston Globe, July 7, 1991; "Medical Marijuana," Orange
County Register, September 11, 1991; "Paralyzed Push For Right To Medical
Marijuana," St. Petersburg Times, October 2, 1991; "Forbidden
Relief," Dallas Morning News, November 10, 1991.
33.) State of Florida v. Kenneth & Barbra Jenks See
34.) "Medical Marijuana Chief Should Resign, Patients Say," Saint Paul
Pioneer Press (St. Paul, Minnesota), February, 5, 1992. "Official Accused of
Medical Terrorism," Orlando Sentinel (Orlando, Florida), February 5,
35.) "Delay in Lifting Ban on Pot for Ill Is Assailed," by Ronald J. Ostrow, Los
Angeles Times, January 31, 1992; "Drug Office Blasts Delay on Medical Use of
Pot," San Francisco Chronicle, January 31, 1992.
36.) "The Last Smoke," The Economist, March 28, 1992. "Marijuana
Still A Drug, Not a Medicine," by Katherine Bishop, The New York Times,
March 22, 1992.
37.) See "What the Press Says."
38.) "Government Limits Marijuana Medical Use," Houston Chronicle,
March 11, 1992, p. 6A.
40.) "The Sick Who Need Pot Say Anti-Drug Era Hurts," by Cory
Jo Lancaster, Orlando Sentinel, March 4, 1992.
41.) "Pot as Medicine: Unfair Decision," The Ann Arbor
News, as reprinted in The Bay City Times, March 23, 1992. "Medicinal
Use of Marijuana Inconsistent," by Ken Fuson, Des Moines Sunday Register,
March 22, 1992. "Marijuana Ban Sparks Outrage," by Alfredo Azula, The
Phoenix Gazette, March 16, 1992.
42.) "The Drug War Claims More Innocent Victims," by Stephen Chapman, Chicago
Tribune, March 12, 1992, p.29. "War on Drugs Heaps Suffering on Sufferers,"
The News Herald (Panama City, Florida), March 13, 1992. "Medical Use of
Marijuana: Let Doctors Decide," The Star Tribune (Minneapolis), March 23,
43.) "One alternative is the use of the oral dosage form of the major active
ingredient in marijuana, delta-9 THC.... Its trade name is Marinol.... Marinol may be as
effective and even less likely to cause adverse effects than smoking marijuana cigarettes
in controlling your patient's symptoms." Information for the Physician on the Use of
Marijuana Cigarettes Provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Fact Sheet prepared
by NIDA, August 1991.
44.) "They Smoke Pot, But Not to Get High," by Sylvia Rubin, San Francisco
Chronicle, March 13, 1992.
45.) "Theoretically, smoking might be the preferable route since it results in less
variability of absorption through the gastro-intestinal route. Moreover, smoking provides
greater opportunity for individual patient control by permitting the patient to regulate
and maintain the `high'." S. Sallan, M.D., N. Zinberg, M.D., & E.I. Frei III,
M.D. "Antiemetic Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Patients Receiving Cancer
Chemotherapy," New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 293, No. 16, (October
15, 1975), pp. 795-797.
46.) Direct Testimony of Norman Zinberg, M.D., Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Vol.
I, p. 416.
47.) National Cancer Institute, internal memo dated May 15, 1978. Minutes of a May 9, 1978
meeting, pages 1 & 4.
48.) "Marijuana cigarettes in many cases are superior to synthetic THC capsules in
reducing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Marijuana has an important, clear
advantage over synthetic THC capsules in that natural marijuana is inhaled and generally
takes effect more quickly than the synthetic capsule which is ingested and must be
processed through the digestive system before it takes effect." Decision of Judge
Francis L. Young, Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Vol. II, p. 413 at 3.
49.) Robert Gorter, M.D. "Management of Anorexia-Cachexia in Advanced HIV
Disease," PAACNOTES, Vol. 3, No. 5, 1992.
50.) "Marijuana cigarettes have been used to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and
vomiting and research has shown that the active ingredient THC is more readily and quickly
absorbed from marijuana smoke than from an oral preparation of the substance." From
Marijuana For Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting, Fact Sheet Prepared by the
National Cancer Institute, February 12, 1992.
51.) According to a Harvard University survey of oncologists, 44% of cancer specialists
believe marijuana is more effective than Marinol and 47% stated Marinol caused negative
side effects. "Marijuana as Antiemetic Medicine: A Survey of Oncologists Experiences
and Attitudes," Journal of Clinical Oncology, (July 1991), p. 1316.
52.) "Many of the therapeutic properties of cannabis have been verified with pure
natural or synthetic cannabinoids. In several fields, however, no modern work exists. The
most blatant examples are the anthelmintic, antimigraine, and oxytocic effects. Are we
missing something?" Raphael Mechoulam, Ph.D., Cannabinoids as Therapeutic Agents,
(Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, Inc.) 1986, p.16.
53.) Marijuana Therapeutic Research Project: Trial A 1980-1981," Department of Social
Oncology - Evaluations Unit, Michigan Cancer Society, March 18, 1992, Table 9 at pg 10.
See Marijuana, Medicine & the Law, Vol. II, p. 45.
54.) Ibid. See Chang/NCI & New Mexico studies, Marijuana, Medicine &
The Law, Vol. II, pp. 34-38.
55.) Mae Nutt testified that when her son Keith, a cancer patient, had access to
marijuana, "He would join the family for dinner, where he would eat more than his
share. He became outgoing and talkative. Keith became part of our family again because
[of] marijuana...." Marijuana, Medicine & The Law, Vol. I, p. 91 at
56.) Press Conference to announce creation of the MARS Project, February 28, 1991,
57.) The Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics, joined by the Physicians Association for AIDS
Care and The Lymphoma Foundation of America, has appealed DEA's March 1992 rejection of
Judge Young's 1988 ruling that marijuana should be rescheduled. ACT v DEA, U.S.
Court of Appeals (DC Circuit Case No. 92-1168).
58.) Federal agencies could sabotaged scheduled shipments of medical marijuana to the ten
seriously ill Americans still receiving Compassionate IND care. War on Drugs hardliners in
the bureaucracy would exploit such supply disruptions to provoke a confrontation which
publicly pits incoming Clinton appointees against these seriously ill Americans. The
bureaucracy would, of course, use the resulting confusion to solidify control over future
59.) "Let Doctors Prescribe Pot," Albany Times Union, editorial,
January 4, 1993.
60.) "Marijuana Therapy Should Be Approved," The Oakland Tribune,
January 5, 1993.
61.) PHS Chief Mason's order terminating the Compassionate IND program for medical
marijuana, March 4, 1992. From FOIA materials obtained by the Drug Policy Foundation,
62.) "The Administrative law judge recommends the marijuana plant considered as a
whole has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, that there
is no lack of accepted safety for use of it under medical supervision and that it may
lawfully be transferred from Schedule I to Schedule II." Decision of Judge Francis L.
Young, See Marijuana, Medicine & the Law, Vol II. pp. 445-446.
63.) DEA agents have routinely conducted extensive face-to-face interviews with physicians
who requested Compassionate IND access to medical marijuana. During such encounters law
enforcement officers demand that licensed physicians justify treatment decisions. The
intent of these interviews is to harass, coerce, and intimidate the physician.
[ Up ] [ Introduction ] [ The Public Supports Medical Access ] [ Inheriting Bad Policy ] [ Synthetic Solutions ] [ What Can Be Done? ] [ Footnotes ]